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Emergency medicine, is defines as accident emergency medicine, and the medical specialty based on the skills required for the prevention, diagnosis and management of acute illness and injury affecting patients of all age groups with a complete spectrum of undifferentiated physical and behavioural disorders. It is a first-contact point of care for health care system. Critical care is for hospital patients who are suffering with serious health problems and who need intensive medical care monitoring. Generally, the patients in intensive care units (ICU) are cared for by a team of donors which includes specially trained nurses or physicians.
Some of the emergency drugs:
- Magnesium sulphate
Pediatric Emergency medicine initially focuses on the care of the acutely ill or injured child cases in an emergency department. It provides care for a patient with a metabolic disorder that is not responding to therapy, a child struck by an automobile, a child with an asthma attack, a jaundiced new-born with a fever, a victim of child abuse or a wide variety of behavioural conditions. Pediatric physicians may have multiple roles in the emergency department, hospital, healthcare system and community. Cardiovascular disease is the most prominent killer of adults. Symptoms of Cardiac Emergencies are:
- Chest discomfort
- Shortness of breath
Emergency Nursing is commonly known as professional nursing and it mainly concentrates on the care of patients who require immediate medical attention to avoid long term disability or death case. According to "True Emergencies," emergency nurses generally care for people like; who are unable to get primary medical care will approach emergency departments for seeking help. Therefore, only a less count of emergency department patients have emergency conditions such as a stroke, heart attack or major trauma. Emergency nurses always tend to deal with patients who are suffering with acute alcohol or drug intoxication, psychiatric and behavioural problems.
Most common conditions treated in the ER:
- Abdominal pain
- Upper-respiratory infection
- Strains and sprains
- Superficial injury
Shock is experienced when systemic hypoperfusion results in severe dysfunction of the vital organs. The effective resuscitation includes the quick identification and correction of an inadequate circulation. Generally, shock is a life-threatening medical condition and is a medical emergency. The leading symptom of shock is low blood pressure. Treatment for shock depends on the cause and tests will be determined by the cause and severity.
Five types of shocks:
- Anaphylactic shock
- Cardiogenic shock
- Hypovolemic shock
- Neurogenic shock
- Septic shock
Emergency Imaging develops protocols that are widely adopted by other ERs. Many of the emergency imaging procedures and protocols in current use were first established and reported by the division. And cross-sectional imaging protocols for acute abdominal conditions can immediately identify the patients who need emergency surgery.
Gynaecological disorders are one of the main causes for morbidity among women of reproductive age. Some of the most common gynaecological emergencies are acute pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriages. Gynaecological conditions which represent emergencies are menstrual disorders, bleeding gynaecological malignancies, coital laceration and sexual assault. Obstetric emergencies are also one of the major health problems that are life-threatening for pregnant women and their babies. This particular emergency may arise at any time during pregnancy, labour and birth.
Trauma means when a person undergo distressing event that involve serious harm, injury or threat of death. The known trauma disease has always the trends in military war experiences. Generally these trauma injuries may range from small lesions to multi organ injury. Therefore, our health care systems in the management of various victims have led to new innovations in our trauma care system.
Anesthesia means it is the use of medicines to prevent pain during surgery. They are injected into body by injection, inhalation, topical lotion, spray, eye drops, or skin patch. It is used in minor procedures, such as filling a tooth and can also be used during child birth or procedures such colonoscopies and in major and minor surgeries. Some of the different types of anesthesia are general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, and local anesthesia. Generally anesthesia is safe, but some of the risk conditions include like heart rhythm or breathing problems etc.
Psychiatric Emergencies includes symptoms and conditions like attempted suicide, alcohol intoxication, acute depression, presence of delusions, violence, panic attacks. It exists to identify or treat these symptoms and psychiatric conditions. Several rapidly lethal medical conditions present themselves with usual psychiatric symptoms. Generally, social emergency medicine emerges from the limb of Emergency Medicine that prospects the interaction of social forces and the emergency care system.
Orthopaedic Emergencies often treats patients who are suffering with severe orthopaedic injuries and musculoskeletal disorders and constitute a large portion of patients presenting to the emergency department. Generally, orthopaedic injuries are dramatic sometimes, but they need not draw attention from critical elements of initial patient assessment and treatments.
Medical Toxicology Emergencies became common specific subject in the developed countries in response to the proliferation and use of chemicals in our daily life. Similarly, children with toxicological emergencies need only non‐invasive monitoring system, which is provided by trained ambulance crews. Appearance of a toxicologist in the initial consultation is to identify these patients might reduce retrieval numbers and costs
Acute Care Nursing means exact opposite of long-term care or chronic care services. Patients who receive active but short-term treatment for a severe injury, illness, recovery from surgery, routine health problems, or acute exacerbation of chronic illnesses. Generally, the main aim of acute care is to restore the health and stability of the patient. Psychiatric Acute Care is necessary for mental illnesses.
Neurological emergencies are similarly rare but have disastrous consequences. It is generally known as a condition that is life-threatening or in which a patient is treated with poor functional recovery unless treated promptly. They present a unique challenge in the intensive care unit for requiring rapid evaluation and treatment. Some of the common neurological emergencies are
- Sudden onset severe headache
- Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Intensive care unit (ICU) directors and doctors recognize important barriers to optimal end-of-life care but also universally endorse many practical strategies for quality improvement. Nurses who are in the ICU must be skilled in pain management to ensure their patients remain as comfortable as possible. During this period of time people often require ongoing care which may include end of life care and it also helps them to live as well as possible until they die, and to die with dignity.
Dermatological Emergencies may also include diseases with severe alterations in structure, leading to acute skin failure that demands a quick diagnosis, in functioning of the skin, careful monitoring hospitalization, and multidisciplinary intensive care to minimize the associated morbidity. Similarly, we know that dermatological disease can be fatal disease and must be evaluated by a dermatologist, intensivist, surgeon, or any other specialists. Some of the known dermatological emergencies are:
- Drug eruptions
- Neutrophilic dermatoses
- Urticaria and angioedema
Endocrine Emergencies and Diabetes are generally treated by the acute medical care admitting team or emergency and department. As we know, endocrine emergencies usually represent a group of life-threatening state are frequently overlooked. When the disease process is not often recognized, then true occurrence of primary endocrine emergencies is not well defined. They are four endocrine emergencies:
- Thyroid storm
- Myxedema coma
- Diabetic ketoacidosis
- Acute adrenal crisis
Pre-hospital Care is known as some of the medical services provided to emergency medical patients for analytic, stabilizing or preventative purposes resuscitative and during the transportation of such patients to health care facilities. Similarly, Inter-hospital care means those emergency medical services provided to patients for resuscitative, analytic, stabilizing, or preventative purposes. Medical Education is usually known for educating the doctors of academic field at all levels, like entry-level, post-graduate, and continuing medical education.
Acute Lung Injury (ALI) and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) are commonly caused by different conditions and injuries. They includes pulmonary and extra pulmonary causes which can have benefits in standardizing supportive care, and it can also complicate assessments of the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Generally ALI is observed to be more severe when compared to ARDS, which are similar causes of Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure (AHRF). Four signs of respiratory distress are:
- Nose flaring
Military Medicine, which is known as medical specialty, it defines a limb of occupational medicine attending to the medical risks and require soldiers of both preventive and interventional, and other service members. Generally, military medicine arena has historically involved in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases, and health effects of operating military-specific machines and equipment like tanks, submarines, airplanes and helicopters. Hence, few countries recognize "military medicine" as a formal speciality or subspecialty in its own right.
Airway Management in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a provocation procedure and is frequently associated with life-threatening complications. Generally, airway management of the critically ill patients will follow the same principles as intubation of surgical patients, but it increasingly became apparent and it requires a qualitatively different approach other than operating room. Similarly, prevention techniques of Airway Management focus on preventing airway obstruction by the tongue and also by reducing the likelihood of aspiration of stomach contents or blood
According to clinical practice of emergency medicine, it is a three-dimensional representation of the clinical practice of emergency medicine. It is one of the products of successful collaboration involving the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM), the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the Emergency Medicine Residents' Association (EMRA), the American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM) and the Residency Review Committee for Emergency Medicine (RRC-EM).